What are Essentials Topics of Fluid Mechanics for CFD Modeling
Dr. Sharad N. Pachpute
Introduction of Fluid Flows
- Fluid mechanics deals with flow physics for liquids, gases, or any flowing medium by considering external forces and their effect on the deformation of fluid flows
- It is an essential subject for many engineering and applied sciences
- Mechanical, chemical, civil engineering, and environmental science
- Geophysics, Meteorology, Oceanography
- Astrophysics, and Biology
- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): It is a subject based on fluid mechanics and numerical methods
- Convective Heat or Mass Transfer: Fluid mechanics plays a role in the bulk motions of fluid with heat transfer. The modeling of convective heat transfer is mentioned on the webpage of CFD flow engineering.
- Due to the importance of fluid in real life, nature, and industrial applications, this subject has been important for many decades for scientists, engineers, and astrophysicists
Major Applications of fluid Flows
- Any application relevant to fluid flow
- Automobile, chemical, and processing industries
- Energy sector
- Transportation Sector
- Environmental Fluid Flows
- Weather or meteorology
- Biological Applications
- CFD modeling applications
Outline of Fluid Mechanics
- Fluid mechanics is divided into statics and dynamics
- In fluid static, the result force and moments are zero
- The fluid dynamics which deals with flows in motions, resultant forces or moments can not be zero
- Fluid flows deal with gas and liquids
The Concept of Field
- Any physical quantity that generates or carries the force in the fluid is called a field
- Some basic properties of the fluid (like density, viscosity, surface tension etc.) with surroundings conditions (walls, moving surfaces etc.) are responsible for the occurrence of the flow field.
- The fields can be scalar and vector or both in nature
- Scalar fields are quite easier to understand with than vector fields
- Most of the resources, energy, and work are in the form of scalars. These scalars can be used to create vector fields like velocity, force and stress
- First step is to analyze fluid flows using bas properties of scalar and vector fields
- During flowing process, the properties of working medium changes with a time-dependent. Such flows are unsteady
- In fluid flows, physical quantities are functions of time (t) and space (x)
- Vector: velocity, stresses acting on the fluid
- Scalar: Thermodynamic properties of fluid such as pressure, temperature, density, enthalpy etc.
Basic Physical Quantities in Fluid Mechanics
Scalar (Zeroth-order tensor)
- Scalar has a definite magnitude but not a definite direction
- Example: Density, Pressure, Temperature, Concentration
- If N is the order of tensor Total component in 3 directions (X, Y, and Z directions): 3N
- Total component for scalar: 30 = 1
Vector (First-order tensor)
- A first-order tensor consists of definite magnitude, with three components and a definite different three directions
- Example: velocity, force, heat flux, etc.
- Heat flux vector
- The spread of Fire in a Room is an example of a heat flux vector, a firing rate is not the same in all direction
- ▼ is Differential Operator, then the heat flux vector
Here, del (▼)is a differential operator
- A second-order tensor has nine definite components and nine definite directions
- Example: Velocity gradient, Stress, Strain, thermal conductivity
- Velocity Gradient:
A velocity gradient consists of deformation and rotation tensor.
- Stress Tensor:
- Thermal conductivity:
- For isotropic materials has only one component and it is a scalar quantity. The thermal conductivity is same in all direction.
- The thermal conductivity is different in all direction which is called an anisotropic material. It has 9 different components.
- Field variables of pressure and gravity and their effect were presented by Pascal
- To start with simple Fluid Mechanics traditionally with hydro-statics, only pressure and external force (e.g. gravity) are essential
- You can refer to the post on experimental fluid pressure measurement methods in the post.
Where p is the pressure field, Φ is the external force field potential and ρ is density.
- The static pressure is independent on the shapes of water storage
- Due to high pressure at the bottom, the velocity of the jet is higher at the bottom and lower for the top jet
- However, analytical pressure drop for fluid flow through the pipe is calculated using loss coefficient and average velocity.
Physical Properties of Tensor
Scalar is a mother of Vector Field
- Start from the path integral Work which is equal to the dot product of force and displacement vectors
- Vector is a gradient of Scalar
- The gradient in scalar creates a vector field
System conversions for Gradient for the different coordinate system
- Cartesian co-ordinate
- Cylindrical co-ordinate
- Spherical co-ordinate
Gauss’s Divergence Theorem
- Divergence (Gauss’s) theorem
- This theorem is useful for the expansion or contraction (divergence or convergence) of material inside a volume which is equal to what entering and leaving across the boundary of the material
- The divergence theorem is mainly used
- to convert a surface integral into a volume integral.
- to convert a volume integral to a surface integral.
The Divergence Effect in A Fluid Flow
- A velocity field is the major vector field essential to describe a flowing fluid
- The divergence is used to measure the expansion and contraction in fluid flows
- A divergence of vector field can have a positive or negative value
- Diverging Flows: a vector field whose divergence is positive
- Converging Flows: a vector field whose divergence is negative
- Solenoidal Flows: a vector field whose divergence is zero
- Application of convergence and divergence for atmospheric flow over a ground
Types of Non-Solenoid Flows
- Incompressible flow is vector-dominated as variation in scalar (density) is negligible
- Example: flow over a car
- For compressible Flow, both vector and scalar are essential for flow analysis
- Example: flow over a fighter jet or space shuttle
Mass Conservation or Continuity Equation
Continuity equation in differential form
One Dimensional Form Continuity equation
- For one-dimensional compressible flow, the mass flow rate is constant
Mass flow rate at any cross-section = ρAV
- For incompressible flow: flow rate at any cross-section, Area*average Velocity =constant
The curl of a vector field
- The Curl of a vector field is a measure of flow Circulation which is defined as
- Circulation is the amount of force that pushes along a closed boundary or path
- Curl measure the amount of circulation per unit area, circulation density, or rate of rotation (twisting action at a single point)
- Curl has a magnitude equal to the maximum “circulation” at each point
- Its direction is oriented perpendicularly to this plane of circulation for each point
The Curl of Velocity Field
- A vorticity vector is defined as the curl of a velocity vector
- Example: Atmospheric flow is highly rotational
Rotational vs Irrotational flow
- Flows with vorticity are called rotational flows
- Flows without vorticity (zero value of curl of velocity) are said to be irrotational flow
- Cyclonic Flows:
- Anti-Cyclonic Flows:
Vorticity Transport Equation
- Vortex Stretching is in turbulent flow presented by the Vorticity Transport Equation
- In this equation, there are two terms o the RHS: viscous torque and vortex stretching term
- Vortex lines possess vorticity which is defined as the curl of the local velocity vector and its magnitude is indicative of the angular rotation of fluid elements about the local ‘axis’.
- Large-eddy has Reynolds number in terms of length scale hence it is almost inviscid and Large-eddy angular momentum is conserved as it does not have any viscous torque acting on it
- The Energy Cascade is observed. Large eddies have most of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) which is transferred to smaller eddy. Hence, the angular velocity for the large eddy is decreasing.
- To maintain their angular momentum conservation, the moment of inertia (MOI) of the large eddies increases and large eddies are stretched.
- Vortex lines become distorted from the induced velocities of the bigger eddies.
- This phenomenon can be explained using the vorticity transport equation
Forces Acting on Fluid Flows
Types of forces acting on Fluid Flows
1) Body (Volumetric) Force:
- Gravity Force
- Electrical Force:
- Dielectric force
- Coulomb force
- Electrostriction force
- Magnetic: Lorentz force
2) Normal Surface Force: Pressure, surface tension,viscous forces
3) Combined Normal and Tangential Surface Forces
- Force due to thermo-dynamic Effects: Buoyancy forces or surface
- Physio-Chemical or concentration-based forces: Environmental or Bio-fluid mechanics
Stress Acting on Fluid Flows is the mother of Surface Force
- Force acting on the surface of a fluid element is the divergence of the Stress tensor field
- The stress tensor is usually divided into its normal and shear stress parts
Momentum Acting on Fluid Flows
- The momentum equation is integrated over a system to get drag, lift forces forces due to pressure and viscosity
- Forces due to viscous forces, and gravitational forces act on fluid
- Depending on the application, Other forces can affect fluid flows such as electrodynamic, electrostatic, and magnetic forces
- Newton’s second law of motion
Flows Driven by Gravitational Force
- Water fall under gravity is an example of flow driven by a gravitational force
- The momentum equation is given below
- The gravitational force acting on a fluid system is a volume integral of the product of mass and acceleration due to gravity
Flows Driven by Electromagnetic Force
- In such cases, the forces are identified as electrodynamic and electrostatic
- Supplying high voltage between the Collecting Electrode and Discharge Electrode generates a Corona Discharge that produces minus ions
- Magneto-fluid dynamics: Fluid Dynamics of electrically-conducting fluids and their interactions with magnetic fields.
- There is an interaction of three fields: Magnetic field, Electric field and Plasma flow
- Magnetic field flow (B) can produce an Electric field (J).
- The interaction of magnetic and electrical fields can produce Lorentz Force to accelerate the flow
- The principle of Magneto-hydrodynamics dynamics is shown below
- Using electric and magnetic fields, the flow can be accelerated with an increase in flow
Differential Form of Momentum Conservation Equations for Fluid Flows
- Newton’s Second Law to a system of fluid flow
- Newton’s Second law to a control volume of fluid element
- Stress acting on fluid is a function for strain rate and rotation tensor
Viscosity of Fluid
Newtonian (linear) Viscous Fluid
- Newton’s Law of Viscosity: for straight, parallel and uniform flow, the shear stress , between layers is proportional to the velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the layers
- Shear stress = Viscosity * Velocity Gradient
- Newton’s Law of viscosity provides a more economical solution to complex flows
- Example: Air, water
- Most of fluid does not show a linear variation of shear stress with the rate of strain
- For such non-linear viscous fluid is called Non-Newtonian fluid
- Non-linear (non-Newtonian) fluids do not have a constant viscosity. They can exhibit different viscosity behaviors based on the shear rate or stress applied. There are several types of non-Newtonian behavior given below
- Shear-thinning (Pseudoplastic):
- The viscosity of the fluid decreases as the shear rate or stress increases.
- Common examples include ketchup and certain types of paints. These fluids become less viscous and flow more easily when you apply force.
- Shear-thickening (Dilatant):
- The viscosity of the fluid increases as the shear rate or stress increases.
- A popular example is a mixture of cornstarch and water.
- When force is applied, the mixture becomes thicker and more viscous.
- Thixotropic fluids become less viscous over time when they are subjected to continuous shear stress.
- When the stress is removed, they gradually return to their original, higher viscosity state.
- Many gels and some types of clay exhibit thixotropic behavior.
- Rheopectic fluids, on the other hand, become more viscous over time under shear stress and return to their original lower viscosity state when the stress is removed.
- This behavior is less common than thixotropy.
- Viscosity changes due to changes in force, pressure gradient, temperature or concentration of liquid or solid particles
- The following figure shows the effect of non-linear viscosity on velocity profiles
- Example of Non-Newtonian Fluids: Honey, toothpaste, Ketch up, slurry flow, salt solution, corn starch, blood, melted butter, shampoo, starch suspension
- For the memoir of 1755, Euler obtained the momentum equations of fluid flow
- He equated the product of mass and acceleration aof fluid element to the resultant of the pressures and external body forces acting the fluid element
- Bernoulli integrated the Euler equation for a steady, incompressible, and inviscid flow
- Bernoulli equation shows that the total energy of fluid for a particular section is constant
- When fluid flows over a surface, a very thin region is formed adjacent to the non-slip wall. This results in the formation of gradient in velocity normal to the wall
- When fluid flows over a sudden down portion. The fluid separates due to positive pressure gradient
Flow Over A curved Surface
- Two flow regions are formed over a curved surface
- In a favorable pressure gradient, the fluid flow accelerates
- In an adverse pressure gradient, the fluid flow separates due to wake region
Laminar vs Turbulent Flow
- The relative magnitude of inertial and viscous terms is called as Reynolds number
- Increasing velocity of fluid flow (Reynolds number), the non-linearity inertia term of Navier-Stokes(NS) equations that causes disturbances in fluid flows
For a more detailed understanding of turbulent flow, Read Turbulent Flow Physics and Methods of Analysis
- Fluid mechanics is an important subject for many engineering applications. It helps to understand of flow physics of liquids and gases, external forces, and their effect on the deformation of fluid flow
- The governing equations of fluid flows are Mass and momentum (Navier Stokes equations). These equations are solved numerically in CFD simulation.
- Volumetric, surface forces have different applications in fluid flows
- Viscous forces are important in the boundary layer and inertia forces are significant out of the boundary layer
- Using Flow features we can define laminar and turbulent (chaotic) flows