Applications of CFD for Flow Technology

Fluid flows and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to develop new technology in modern automobile, aerospace, advanced fighter jets,  and rocket engines,  wind turbines, flying cars,  green energy and energy efficient technology.  

Modern Flying Car 

  • Flying cars have been a dream since old period.
  • Engineers tired to put jet engines but it is very difficult to control the speed in public areas. Many companies have been working to develop a flying car with the help of a small jet engine or a drone of four propellers (quadcopter). 

 VTOL Jet Car/ Electric  Flying Taxi

  • Lilium Aviation (German start up) is working to bring a flying car which will travel up to 300 Km with 5 passenger by one trip
  • Electric ducted fans attached on the wings generate the thrust 
  • Its jet is controlled remotely from the ground,
  • Two parallel wings are fitted  with 36 electric ducted fans  for vertical take-off and  landing (VTOL) 


 Quadcopter-based Flying Car

Sky Drive (Japanese company)  has been testing  SkyDrive SD-03 as  a flying car.  It is considered to be  the world’s smallest flying electric car . This car takes vertical take up and roamed  around 30 minutes in air. They hope it will be available by 20225.

  • Its working principle is similar to drones. Four propellors and rotor are attached at four ends.
  • A powerful battery provided to drive the rotors of propeller which create thrust and motion of vehicle
  • Thrust to weight ratio is a critical factor to design any flying machine
  • The power provided by battery is not enough to ensure a long flying time.



World’s first flying Car (PAl-v)

  • Successfully completed 1500 hrs test
  • Total weigh 660kg



Amphibious Vehicle

Amphibious Aircraft

  • An amphibious aircraft  is developed to   take off and land on both water and land
  • A retractable landing gear in the this aircraft permits the aircraft to operate on the surface of water and land
  • An Amphibious aircraft   displaces water and create buoyancy to run on the surface of water. During the flying , propeller fans create enough thrust and lift.



 Amphibious Bike

  •  Gibbs Biski has developed an amphibious bike. It consist of two-cylinder gasoline engine that produces 55 HP power to drive the bike on the road. The engine can helps to push the water and create rolling motion over a water surface.
  • Floater made from plastic and rubber is attached on both the sides of bike such a way that which can float on water without ruining the engine
  • The maximum speed is  37 mph on water surface and 80 mph  on the road.
  • Watch the video: Biski Amphibious Motorcycle


Applications of  CFD for Flow Predictions

Development of Hyperloop 

  • Regular trains can not run at high speeds compared to airplanes due to track  fiction and pressure drag
  • To reduce friction, the concept of magnetic repulsion is used to speed the pod. A low pressure is maintained in the tube around the pod.
  • Advantages of Hyperloop:
    •  Low traveling time
    • Low maintenance cost
  • Disadvantage :
    • High initial investment 
    • Only one pod can be run at a time for safety reason
    • Earthquake can cause risky 



  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) plays a crucial role in the design and optimization of Hyperloop systems. Hyperloop is a proposed high-speed transportation system where passenger pods travel through low-pressure tubes at very high speeds.
  • CFD allows engineers to simulate and analyze the aerodynamics of the Hyperloop pod and tube system, helping to improve its efficiency, stability, and overall performance.
  •  CFD is an essential tool in the design and development of Hyperloop systems, helping engineers optimize aerodynamics, pressure conditions, heat management, stability, and overall efficiency for a safe and high-performance transportation system
  • Here are some key aspects of CFD in Hyperloop design:
  1. Aerodynamic Analysis:

    • CFD helps in simulating the airflow around the Hyperloop pod and within the tube. Engineers can analyze the aerodynamic forces acting on the pod, such as drag and lift, and optimize the pod shape to minimize air resistance.
  2. Pressure and Flow Simulation:

    • Hyperloop operates in a low-pressure environment to reduce air resistance. CFD is used to simulate and optimize the pressure conditions within the tube, ensuring that the pod encounters minimal air resistance during its high-speed travel.
  3. Heat Management:

    • CFD can be employed to study and manage the heat generated during high-speed travel. Friction between the pod and the tube, as well as aerodynamic heating, can be simulated to optimize cooling systems and prevent overheating.
  4. Pod-Tube Interaction:

    • Understanding the interaction between the Hyperloop pod and the tube is crucial for stability and safety. CFD simulations help analyze the dynamic forces and pressures acting on the pod as it moves through the tube, ensuring a stable and controlled ride.
  5. Pneumatic Levitation:

    • Some Hyperloop designs incorporate magnetic or pneumatic levitation systems to reduce friction and enhance speed. CFD can be used to model and optimize these levitation systems for efficiency and stability.
  6. Emergency Scenarios:

    • CFD simulations can be used to analyze how the Hyperloop system behaves in emergency scenarios, such as sudden stops or system failures. This information is critical for designing safety features and protocols.
  7. Tunnel Design:

    • CFD is also applied to optimize the design of the Hyperloop tube, ensuring smooth airflow and minimal disturbances to the pod’s travel. Tube design considerations include shape, cross-sectional area, and curvature.
  8. Energy Efficiency:

    • CFD simulations contribute to optimizing the overall energy efficiency of the Hyperloop system. This includes evaluating the energy required to maintain low pressure within the tube and minimizing aerodynamic losses.


Aerodynamics Development of Automobile-Auto Rickshaw 

  • CFD helps in simulating the airflow around the automobiles and within the tube.
  • Engineers can analyze the aerodynamic forces acting on the vehicle body, such as drag and lift, and optimize the pod shape to minimize air resistance.
CFD for flow over an Autorikshow
CFD for flow over an Autorikshow


Aerodynamics Development of Automobile –Cars

  • More smooth flow for sedan car and less drag (resistance for airflow)


  • Sudden jump in flow for back side of the bus and more drag (resistance for air flow)

CFD To Predict The flow over an Bus


  • Sedan Car

Aerodynamics Development of Airplanes

The angle of Take off:

  • The angle of attack (AoA) is an essential parameter that every flying  aircraft’s wing should be maintained while take off or landing 
  • Most of planes slowly angle up during the period of  take off by around  2-3 degrees  per second 
  • The plane can take  the  maximum take off angle in the range of 10-15 degrees
  • A higher angle of attach or take off can lead to stalling of aircraft

The angle of Landing:

  • The standard angle of landing is 3° for easier , safer and smoother landing of an aircraft 
  • This is achieved with the help of  Visual Approach Slope Indicators (VASI)  and Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) which are installed near the runways of airports

CFD for Aerodynamics Development of Aeroplane
CFD for Aerodynamics Development of Aeroplane


Flow Over a Cricket Ball

  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used to simulate the flow over a cricket ball, providing insights into aerodynamic forces and behaviors.
  • Analyzing the flow around a cricket ball is essential for understanding how it behaves in flight, which is crucial for bowlers and batsmen in the game of cricket
CFD To Predict The flow over an Ball
CFD To Predict The flow over a Ball


Flow Over a Badminton Shuttlecock

  • The aerodynamics of a badminton shuttlecock are crucial to its flight characteristics during a match.
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be employed to simulate the flow over a badminton shuttlecock, providing insights into its aerodynamic behavior