Fluid flows and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to develop new technology in modern automobile, aerospace, advanced fighter jets, and rocket engines, wind turbines, flying cars, green energy and energy efficient technology.
1. Modern Flying Car
Flying cars have been a dream since old period. Engineers tired to put jet engines but it is very difficult to control the speed in public areas. Many companies have been working to develop a flying car with the help of a small jet engine or a drone of four propellers (quadcopter).
a) VTOL Jet Car/ Electric Flying Taxi
- Lilium Aviation (German start up) is working to bring a flying car which will travel up to 300 Km with 5 passenger by one trip
- Electric ducted fans attached on the wings generate the thrust
- Its jet is controlled remotely from the ground,
- Two parallel wings are fitted with 36 electric ducted fans for vertical take-off and landing (VTOL)
b) Quadcopter based Flying Car
Sky Drive (Japanese company) has been testing SkyDrive SD-03 as a flying car. It is considered to be the world’s smallest flying electric car . This car takes vertical take up and roamed around 30 minutes in air. They hope it will be available by 20225.
- Its working principle is similar to drones. Four propellors and rotor are attached at four ends.
- A powerful battery provided to drive the rotors of propeller which create thrust and motion of vehicle
- Thrust to weight ratio is a critical factor to design any flying machine
- The power provided by battery is not enough to ensure a long flying time.
- Successfully completed 1500 hrs test
- Total weigh 660kg
2. Amphibious Aircraft
- An amphibious aircraft is developed to take off and land on both water and land
- A retractable landing gear in the this aircraft permits the aircraft to operate on the surface of water and land
- An Amphibious aircraft displaces water and create buoyancy to run on the surface of water. During the flying , propeller fans create enough thrust and lift.
3) Amphibious Bike
- Gibbs Biski has developed an amphibious bike. It consist of two-cylinder gasoline engine that produces 55 HP power to drive the bike on the road. The engine can helps to push the water and create rolling motion over a water surface.
- Floater made from plastic and rubber is attached on both the sides of bike such a way that which can float on water without ruining the engine
- The maximum speed is 37 mph on water surface and 80 mph on the road.
- Watch the video: Biski Amphibious Motorcycle
- Regular trains can not run at high speed compared to airplane due to track fiction and pressure drag
- To reduce friction, the concept of magnetic repulsion is used to speed the pod. A low pressure is maintained in the tube around the pod.
- Advantage of Hyperloop:
- Low traveling time
- Low maintenance cost
- Disadvantage :
- High initial investment
- Only one pod can be run at a time for safety reason
- Earthquake can cause risky
5) Flow Pattern Over Automobile
Flow over an Auto Rickshaw
Flow over Cars
- More smooth flow for sedan car and less drag (resistance for air flow)
- Sudden jump in flow for back side of the bus and more drag (resistance for air flow)
6) Flow Pattern Over Aero planes
Angle of Take off:
- The angle of attack (AoA) is an essential parameter that every flying aircraft’s wing should be maintained while take off or landing
- Most of planes slowly angle up during the period of take off by around 2-3 degrees per second
- The plane can take the maximum take off angle in the range of 10-15 degrees
- Higher angle of attach or take off can lead to stalling of aircraft
Angle of Landing:
- The standard angle of landing is 3° for easier , safer and smoother landing of an aircraft
- This is achieved with the help of Visual Approach Slope Indicators (VASI) and Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) which are installed near the runways of airports
7) Flow Over a Cricket Ball
Flow Over a Badminton Shuttlecock