Scope of Ammonia for Power Generations and its Combustion Modeling

Scope of Ammonia in Power Generation

  • Ammonia (NH₃) is gaining attention as a potential fuel for various applications due to its unique properties and advantages in reducing carbon emissions.
  • Here is an overview of ammonia as a fuel:
  • The scope of ammonia combustion in power generation is expanding as it offers a promising solution to reducing carbon emissions in the energy sector.
  • Here are key points to consider:
Applications of Ammonia for power generations
Applications of Ammonia for power generations
  • The scope of using ammonia in power plants is significant due to its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to a sustainable energy transition. Here are the key aspects of ammonia’s role in power plants:

1. Carbon-Free Energy Production

  • Zero CO2 Emissions: Ammonia combustion does not produce carbon dioxide, making it an attractive fuel for power generation in a decarbonized energy system.
  • Green Ammonia: When produced using renewable energy sources, ammonia can serve as a truly carbon-neutral fuel.

2. Integration with Existing Infrastructure

  • Retrofitting: Existing power plants, particularly those designed for natural gas, can be modified to use ammonia, minimizing the need for new infrastructure.
  • Co-Firing: Ammonia can be co-fired with traditional fossil fuels, gradually reducing carbon emissions while utilizing existing plants.

3. Combustion and Efficiency

  • High Ignition Temperature and Low Flame Speed: Addressing these properties through advanced combustion techniques is crucial for efficient power generation.
  • Combustion Technologies: Development of specialized burners and combustion chambers to optimize ammonia combustion and minimize nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.

4. NOx Emission Control

  • Catalytic Converters: Implementation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and other technologies to reduce NOx emissions during ammonia combustion.
  • Advanced Combustion Techniques: Research into low-NOx combustion methods to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.

5. Economic and Regulatory Factors

  • Investment in Infrastructure: Significant investment is required to develop the necessary infrastructure for ammonia production, storage, and transport.
  • Regulatory Support: Policies and incentives to promote the adoption of ammonia as a fuel in power generation.

6. Renewable Energy Storage

  • Energy Storage Medium: Ammonia can act as an energy storage medium, storing excess renewable energy and providing a stable supply for power generation during periods of low renewable output.
  • Energy System Integration: Integration with renewable energy sources like wind and solar to produce green ammonia, enhancing grid stability and reliability.

7. Pilot Projects and Demonstrations

  • Global Initiatives: Various pilot projects and demonstration plants worldwide are exploring the feasibility of using ammonia in power generation.
  • Case Studies: Examples include the introduction of ammonia co-firing in coal power plants in Japan and Europe, showcasing practical applications and performance.
    Ammonia Production reaction from Nitrogen and Hydrogen
    Ammonia Production reaction from Nitrogen and Hydrogen


8. Research and Development

  • Combustion Research: Ongoing research into improving combustion efficiency and reducing emissions.
  • Material Compatibility: Studying the compatibility of ammonia with existing power plant materials and components to ensure safe and efficient operation.

9. Safety Considerations

  • Handling and Storage: Development of robust safety protocols for handling and storing ammonia, given its toxicity and corrosiveness.
  • Leak Detection and Prevention: Technologies to detect and prevent leaks to ensure the safe use of ammonia in power plants.

10. Future Prospects

  • Scalability: Potential to scale up ammonia use in power plants as technology matures and costs decrease.
  • Hybrid Systems: Combining ammonia with other renewable energy sources to create hybrid systems that offer flexible and reliable power generation.

Comparison of Natural Gas and Ammonia 

Comparing the flames of natural gas and ammonia involves looking at various aspects such as their combustion characteristics, emission profiles, and applications. Here are the key points of comparison:

Combustion Characteristics

Natural Gas:

  • Primary Component: Mainly methane (CH₄).
  • Flame Temperature: Around 1,960°C (3,560°F) in air.
  • Combustion Reaction: CH4+2O2→CO2+2H2O\text{CH}_4 + 2\text{O}_2 \rightarrow \text{CO}_2 + 2\text{H}_2\text{O}
  • Flame Color: Blue, indicating a complete combustion when burned with sufficient oxygen.
  • Heat Release Rate: High, providing efficient and powerful combustion.
Comparison of Methane and Ammonia flames
Comparison of Methane and Ammonia flames


  • Primary Component: Ammonia (NH₃).
  • Flame Temperature: Around 1,800°C (3,270°F) in air.
  • Combustion Reaction: 4NH3+3O2→2N2+6H2O4\text{NH}_3 + 3\text{O}_2 \rightarrow 2\text{N}_2 + 6\text{H}_2\text{O}
  • Flame Color: Pale yellow or greenish, often indicating less complete combustion.
  • Heat Release Rate: Lower than natural gas, resulting in a cooler flame.

Emission Profiles

Natural Gas:

  • CO₂ Emissions: Produces carbon dioxide, a significant greenhouse gas.
  • NOₓ Emissions: Produces nitrogen oxides (NOₓ), especially at high temperatures.
  • Particulates: Generally low particulate emissions.


  • CO₂ Emissions: None, as it does not contain carbon.
  • NOₓ Emissions: Can produce significant NOₓ emissions due to the presence of nitrogen.
  • Ammonia Slippage: Unburnt ammonia can be released, which is toxic and a potent pollutant.


Natural Gas:

  • Common Uses: Widely used for heating, electricity generation, and as a fuel for vehicles.
  • Advantages: High energy content, extensive infrastructure, relatively clean compared to other fossil fuels.


  • Common Uses: Emerging as a potential fuel for combustion engines and fuel cells, especially in the context of hydrogen economy.
  • Advantages: Carbon-free combustion, can be used as a hydrogen carrier.

Safety Considerations

Natural Gas:

  • Toxicity: Non-toxic, but asphyxiant in high concentrations.
  • Flammability: Highly flammable and explosive in certain concentration ranges with air.


  • Toxicity: Highly toxic and corrosive, posing significant health risks upon exposure.
  • Flammability: Less flammable compared to natural gas, but still poses combustion risks.

Environmental Impact

Natural Gas:

  • Global Warming Potential (GWP): Methane leaks can have a high GWP, significantly impacting climate change.
  • Air Quality: Combustion can contribute to smog and air pollution.


  • Global Warming Potential (GWP): No direct GWP as it doesn’t contain carbon, but indirect impacts through NOₓ emissions.
  • Air Quality: Risk of ammonia slip leading to environmental pollution and health hazards.


  • Natural Gas is a high-energy, widely-used fuel with a blue flame, high flame temperature, and significant CO₂ and NOₓ emissions.
  • Ammonia is an emerging fuel with a lower flame temperature, pale yellow flame, no CO₂ emissions, but potential for significant NOₓ emissions and toxicity risks.

Both fuels have their advantages and disadvantages, with natural gas being more established and ammonia offering potential as a carbon-free alternative in a future hydrogen economy.

Advantages of Ammonia as Fuel

  • Ammonia offers several advantages as a fuel, particularly in the context of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and transitioning to a more sustainable energy system.
  • Here are some key advantages:

Comparison of Ammonia with Other Fuels

Carbon (CO2) Free Combustion

  • Ammonia combustion does not produce carbon dioxide (CO2), making it a cleaner alternative to fossil fuels.
  • This helps in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change.
  • Reduced CO2 Pollution
  • Reduced Pollution compared to fossil fuels and  contributing to improved air quality.

Hydrogen Carrier

  • Ammonia is an efficient carrier of hydrogen, which is a key element in the transition to a hydrogen economy.
  • Ammonia can store and transport hydrogen more easily and at a lower cost compared to pure hydrogen.

High Energy Density

  • Ammonia has a relatively high energy density compared to other alternative fuels.
  • This makes it suitable for various applications, including power generation, transportation, and industrial processes.
Ammonia for power generation
Ammonia for power generation

Storage and Transportation:

  • Ammonia is easier to store and transport compared to hydrogen.
  • It can be stored as a liquid at relatively low pressures
  • It can be transported using existing infrastructure designed for liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Existing Infrastructure Compatibility:

  • Ammonia can be used in modified existing infrastructure, such as gas turbines and internal combustion engines, reducing the need for entirely new systems and allowing for a smoother transition from fossil fuels.
  • Availability and Production: Ammonia is already produced in large quantities for use in fertilizers and other industrial applications. This existing production capacity can be leveraged to scale up its use as a fuel.
  • Renewable Production: Ammonia can be produced using renewable energy sources through processes such as electrolysis, where renewable electricity splits water into hydrogen and oxygen, and then combining hydrogen with nitrogen from the air. This makes ammonia a sustainable fuel option.
  • Versatility: Ammonia can be used in various forms of energy generation, including combustion in thermal power plants, fuel cells for electricity generation, and as a fuel for marine and heavy-duty transport.
  • Economic Potential: The global market for ammonia is well-established, and with advancements in production and handling technologies, it has the potential to become a cost-competitive fuel option.
Ammonia for Power generation from Hydrogen
Ammonia for Power generation from Hydrogen

Disadvantages of Ammonia as fuel

  • While ammonia has several advantages as a fuel, it also comes with some notable disadvantages and challenges that need to be addressed:

Toxicity and Handling Issues:

    • Ammonia is highly toxic and corrosive.
    • Exposure to ammonia can cause severe health issues, including respiratory problems, skin burns, and eye irritation.
    • Safety measures and protocols are essential for handling, storage, and transportation.

NOx Emissions

    • Although ammonia combustion does not produce CO2, it can produce nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are harmful pollutants contributing to smog and acid rain.
    • Controlling NOx emissions requires advanced combustion techniques and catalytic converters.

Lower Energy Density:

  • Ammonia has a lower energy density compared to conventional fossil fuels like gasoline and diesel.
  • This means that more ammonia is required to produce the same amount of energy, which can affect the design and efficiency of fuel systems.

Combustion Characteristics:

  • Ammonia has a high ignition temperature and low flame speed, making it more challenging to ignite and maintain stable combustion.
  • This can complicate the design of engines and turbines intended to use ammonia as a fuel.
  • For combustion barriers for implementation of ammonia
    • Low burning velocities and flame speeds
    • High ignition delay time and high auto ignition temperature
    • Blending or cracking into hydrogen is required
    • Low energy density per unit of mass (22.5 kJ kg-1)
    • Low radiation intensity
    • high NOx emissions
    • low cetane number(practically equal to 0)
    • Narrow flammability range (16–25% by volume in air)
    • High heat of vaporization, and a power output in SI engines lower than 20%.

Challenges and Costs

  1.  Low Flame Stability: Low burning velocity leads to stability issues
  2. Production Challenges:
    • While ammonia can be produced using renewable energy, current production methods primarily rely on natural gas, which involves CO2 emissions.
    • Transitioning to green ammonia production requires significant investment and development in renewable energy infrastructure.
  3. Storage and Transportation Hazards:
    • Ammonia must be stored and transported under pressure or at low temperatures, which presents risks and requires specialized infrastructure.
    • Leakages can be dangerous due to ammonia’s toxicity and corrosives.
  4. Energy Conversion Efficiency:
    • The overall efficiency of converting renewable energy into ammonia and then back into energy (via combustion or fuel cells) can be lower compared to direct use of renewable electricity.
    • This could result in higher energy losses in the supply chain.
  5. Public Perception and Acceptance:
    • The safety risks associated with ammonia could lead to public resistance or regulatory hurdles.
    • Ensuring robust safety measures and educating the public on the benefits and risks of ammonia as a fuel are crucial for widespread acceptance.
  6. Infrastructure Costs:
    • Developing and retrofitting existing infrastructure to handle ammonia safely and efficiently requires significant investment.
    • This includes modifying power plants, transportation networks, and storage facilities.
  7. Limited Experience:
    • Compared to traditional fossil fuels, there is limited practical experience with ammonia as a fuel.
    • More research, development, and pilot projects are necessary to understand and mitigate potential risks and optimize its use in various applications.
  • Addressing these disadvantages involves technological advancements, regulatory support, and substantial investment in safety measures and infrastructure development.
  • Despite these challenges, ammonia remains a promising candidate for future energy systems due to its potential to contribute to carbon-neutral and sustainable energy solutions.


CFD Modelling of ammonia combustion


  • However, addressing technical, economic, and safety challenges is essential for realizing its full potential
  • Overall, ammonia combustion in power generation holds significant potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and supporting the transition to a more sustainable energy future.
  • CFD modeling is a powerful tool for understanding and optimizing ammonia combustion, helping to overcome the challenges associated with its use as a fuel and paving the way for its broader adoption in various energy applications.



  1.  Median et al, Review on Ammonia combustion in furnaces, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (2024)
  2. Zang et al. , CFD Modeling of Ammonia and coal modeling, Fuel (2020)
  3. Oliver et al, On the use of ammonia as a fuel  (2022)

  4.  Jun eta al. A Review on Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia (2021)
  5.  IEA, Ammonia Fuel Properties
  6. Tsinghua -Princeton Combustion, Current Status of Ammonia (2022)
  7. Alnasif  et al,  Evolution of ammonia reaction mechanisms, (2023) Applications in Energy and Combustion Science

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