# How to model Turbo-machinery using CFD simulations

## An Introduction to Turbo-machinery

• The fundamental of turbomachinery is discussed in the previous post. We should know the parts and relative motion between fluid and fluid machinery.
• Turbo-machinery is defined as the machines (device) which transfer fluid energy between a rotor (a moving wheel with blades)  and a fluid.  It can be turbines and compressors.
• As the turbine rotates and transfers energy from a fluid to a rotor, a compressor transfers energy from a rotor to a fluid
• Air Flow directions around the fan for clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation

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• Steam turbine in power plant for power generation is shown below
• CFD users must be familiar with a basic understanding of turbo-machinery. Hence, the classification and representation of turbine and pump have been elucidated well with diagrams.
• The CFD models are considered for turbo-machinery depending on assumptions, boundary conditions and selection of computational domain.
• CFD users must know advantages and disadvantages of each turbo -CFD model:  Best_practice_guidelines_for_turbomachinery_CFD

2. Classification of turbo-machinery
3. Major turbo-machinery in Thermal Power Plant
4. Governing equations for turbo-machinery
5. Modeling of turbo-machinery
6. ANSYS CFD Tools for turbo-machinery
7. Other CFD Tools for turbo-machinery
8. Resources and CFD Tools

## Classification and Components of Turbo-machinery

### Classification of Turbo-machinery

• Turbo-machines are classified into two types of power generation or power absorption

Turbo-machines  based on  Directions of fluid flow

### Parts of the Axial Turbine Stage

• Major components of axial flow turbine are given as below:
• Stator comprises  a series of stationary blades that acts as guide vane for incoming flows
•  The rotor comprises  a series of moving  blades and provides work/power to the shaft
•   Application of Axial Flow Turbine: thermal  power plant and gas turbine of (aircraft engine)
• Major parts of axial stage turbine: The following figure shows part of turbine and blades for a single-stage axial turbine

### Impulse Turbine vs Reaction Turbine:

• The difference between  impulse and reaction turbine is illustrated with schematics, axial variations of velocity, and pressure
• In the impulse turbine, a high-velocity jet of fluid impinges in the moving bucked and provides the angular momentum to create the torque. The amount of power generated is the product of the torque and angular speed of the turbine.
• In contrast, high-pressure fluid flow is used to create the reaction force of turbine and generation of torque

## Governing Equations for Turbo-machinery

### Multiple Reference Frame (MRF)

• This part consists of stationary and rotating zones. Equations are solved in bot domains

where for each rotating zone: (1) the Coriolis force is added in the governing equations, (2) the flux is calculated from the relative velocity.

## CFD Modeling of Turbo-machinery

### Single Rotating Frame (SRF)

• This model computes fluid flow in a rotating frame of reference that is adhere to a rotating machinery.
• Flow is considered to be steady

Refer for a detailed explanation: Rotating machinery training at OFW10_PDF
Refer available OpenFOAM solver: OpenFOAM_SRF_Solvers
•  Computational Domain

• Boundary conditions for SRF:
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### Multiple Reference Frame (MRF)

• The Multiple Reference Frame (SRF) model computes fluid flow using both the rotating and stationary reference frames.
• Multiple frames to be modeled : i)  Rotating zone is solved in the rotating frame, ii)Stationary zone is solved in the stationary frame:
a)  Computational Domain for MRF:

b) Computational Mesh for MRF:

b) Velocity Contours for MRF:

### Mixing Plane Interface

• This approach is used to model the axial flow turbines which comprises guide vanes, rotor and draft tubes

### Mixing Plane tutorial: Axial Turbine with Boundary conditions

### Axial Turbine: Analysis of A single rotating blade

• Import it into ANSYS ICEM CFD and mesh the model

Rotor CFD Domain:
Stator CFD Domain:

## CFD Tools for Turbo-machinery

• ANSYS modelers consist of three parts:
• Geometry Creation based on blade profile and performance curve for a selected turbo-machinery
• Create of the mesh using meshing platform
• Simulation of turbo-machinery using suitable CFD models

• ANSYS Tools : BladeGen,TurboGrid, CFX, FLUENTS
• OpenFoam: SRFSimlpeFoam, MRFSimlpeFoam,
• Turbo-machineryWIKI_Turbomachinery
• ANSYS for Turbo-machinery Solutions using ANSYS CFX, Mechanical and  DesignXplorer: watch the following video:

## Conclusion

• Turbomachinery are classified based on power absorption or generation, the direction of fluid flows
• The moving part is a rotor which is a common part in all turbo-machinery
• Different CFD models are developed for the analysis of turbo-machinery