Scope of Blast Furnace Gas and BFG Burner For Power Generation

What is Blast Furnace Gas (BFG)?

  • Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) is a byproduct generated during the production of pig iron in a blast furnace.
  • It is a mixture of various gases produced through the combustion of coke (a carbon-rich material derived from coal) and the reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace.
Formation of BFG gas from Iron ore
  • Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) is a byproduct of the iron-making process in a blast furnace. The formation of BFG is an inherent part of the iron and steel production process. Here’s a simplified overview of how BFG is formed:
  1. Iron Ore and Coke Charging:
    • In a blast furnace, iron ore (usually in the form of iron oxides) is combined with coke (a carbon-rich material derived from coal).
    • The coke serves as a fuel and a reducing agent, helping to convert the iron ore into molten iron.
  2. Combustion and Reduction:
    • The coke undergoes combustion with the injected hot air in the blast furnace.
    • This process results in the production of carbon monoxide (CO) as one of the primary products.
    • The CO, in turn, reacts with the iron ore, reducing it to molten iron and producing additional carbon dioxide (CO2).
  3. Blast Furnace Gas Composition:
    • Blast Furnace Gas is a mixture of gases produced during this iron-making process. The composition of BFG typically includes carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen (N2), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and traces of other gases.
    • The exact composition can vary based on factors such as the type of iron ore used, the temperature in the furnace, and the specific operating conditions.
  4. Gas Collection: The generated BFG is collected from the top of the blast furnace. It is then directed to gas cleaning systems to remove impurities and dust before being utilized or released.
  5. Utilization: Blast Furnace Gas has various applications, and one significant use is as a fuel. The gas can be used in on-site power generation for the steel plant, as a heating source for various industrial processes, or as a supplementary fuel in other applications.
  • It’s important to note that while BFG is a valuable byproduct that can be utilized for energy purposes, its composition can be variable, and the burner systems or applications that use BFG must be designed to accommodate these variations.
  • Additionally, efforts are often made to optimize the iron-making process to maximize the efficiency of BFG generation and utilization, as it contributes to the overall energy balance of the steelmaking facility.

Composition of BFG

    • Carbon Monoxide (CO):
      • This is the major component of BFG and is a result of the reduction of iron ore with carbon (usually derived from coke) in the blast furnace.
      • The chemical reaction is as follows:

    • Nitrogen (N2): Nitrogen is present in BFG as it is a major component of the air used in the blast furnace process.
    • Hydrogen (H2): Hydrogen is produced through the reduction of water vapor in the blast furnace. It is a combustible gas with potential energy.
    • Carbon Dioxide (CO2): CO2 is formed as a result of the combustion process and contributes to the overall composition of BFG.
    • Methane (CH4): Methane is a minor component of BFG and is formed during the pyrolysis of coal in the coke.
    • Traces of Other Gases: BFG may also contain small amounts of other trace gases, depending on the specific conditions and raw materials used in the blast furnace.
  • The composition of BFG can vary based on factors such as the type of iron ore used, the temperature in the blast furnace, and the specific operating conditions. After being generated in the blast furnace,

Estimated-composition-of-Blast-Furnace-Flue-Gas (BFG)

  • BFG is typically collected at the top of the furnace and can be utilized for various purposes to make the steel production process more efficient and sustainable.

Benefits of Blast Furnace Gas

  • BFG is a valuable resource because of its relatively high calorific value, especially due to the presence of carbon monoxide. It can be used as a fuel in various industrial processes, including heating applications and power generation.
  • BFG is an essential aspect of energy recovery in the steel industry, contributing to improved sustainability and cost-effectiveness in steel production. Utilizing BFG helps reduce the environmental impact by harnessing the energy content of a byproduct that might otherwise be wasted or flared.
  • Efforts are often made to optimize the utilization of BFG to recover energy and reduce environmental impact, making it a valuable resource in the overall energy balance of a steel manufacturing facility.
  • The following are major benefits

Energy Recovery:

  • BFG is a byproduct of the iron-making process and contains combustible gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), with high calorific value.
  • BFG burners can be used to efficiently combust these gases, converting the chemical energy into thermal energy.

Power Generation:

  • BFG burners are often integrated into combined heat and power (CHP) systems, where the heat produced during combustion is used to generate steam.
  • The steam can then be directed to a turbine to generate electricity, providing a source of on-site power for the steel plant.

Improved Energy Efficiency:

    • Utilizing BFG for power generation improves the overall energy efficiency of the steel manufacturing process.
    • It allows for the recovery of energy that would otherwise be wasted, contributing to a more sustainable and cost-effective operation.

Reduced Environmental Impact:

  • BFG burners help in reducing the environmental impact of steel production by utilizing a byproduct that might otherwise be flared or released.
  • The combustion of BFG can be controlled to minimize emissions and comply with environmental regulations.

Cost Savings:

    • On-site power generation using BFG can lead to significant cost savings for the steel plant by reducing dependence on external power sources.
    • It can also contribute to the plant’s resilience by providing a more reliable and self-sufficient power supply.

Flexibility in Operation:

    • BFG burners can be designed to accommodate variations in BFG composition, allowing for flexibility in operation as the gas composition may change based on factors like the type of iron ore used or process conditions.

Integration with Existing Systems:

    • BFG power generation systems can often be integrated with existing steel plant infrastructure, making it a feasible and cost-effective option for energy recovery.

Government Incentives:

    • In some regions, there may be government incentives or regulations encouraging the adoption of sustainable and energy-efficient practices, implementing BFG burners for power generation even more attractive.
BFG burner
BFG burner

BFG Burners

  • This burner is presented in the post. The BFG  burner utilizes blast furnace gas as a fuel source for heating, and power generation, or as a supplementary fuel in other industrial processes.
  • The design and operation of the burner are important to ensure efficient and controlled combustion of blast furnace gas.
  • Key features and considerations for a blast furnace gas burner include:
  1. High-Temperature Operation: Blast furnace gas has a high calorific value, and the burner must be designed to operate at elevated temperatures to effectively combust the gas.
  2. Stability and Control: The burner should provide stable and controllable combustion to meet the specific process requirements. This may involve the use of control systems to regulate air and fuel flow.
  3. Safety: Safety features are essential to prevent accidents and ensure the safe operation of the burner. This includes mechanisms to handle potential variations in gas composition and pressure.
  4. Heat Recovery: Depending on the application, the burner may be designed to recover heat from the combustion process for use in other parts of the industrial process or for power generation.
  5. Adaptability: Burner designs may need to be adaptable to variations in blast furnace gas composition, flow rates, and other parameters.
  6. Emissions Control: Efforts should be made to minimize emissions of pollutants, and the burner may include features for emission control, such as flue gas treatment systems.
  7. Maintenance and Reliability: The burner should be designed for ease of maintenance, and its components should be durable and reliable for continuous operation.
Scope of Blast furnace gas for power generation
Scope of Blast furnace gas for power generation

Scope for CFD for Development of BFG  Burners

  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of blast furnace gas (BFG) burners involves using numerical methods to model and analyze the fluid flow, heat transfer, and combustion processes occurring within the burners.
  • CFD simulations are valuable tools for understanding and optimizing the performance of industrial burners, including those designed for BFG.
  • Here are the key steps and considerations in conducting CFD simulations of BFG burners:
Temperature Contours in oil Burner obtained from CFD simulation
Temperature Contours in oil Burner obtained from CFD simulation

3D Burner Model  Generation 

  • Develop a detailed 3D model of the blast furnace gas burner geometry.
  • This includes the burner nozzle, flame stabilizer, and any other relevant components.
  • Accurate representation is crucial for realistic simulations.

Mesh Generation:

    • Create a computational mesh around the burner geometry.
    • The mesh quality and resolution significantly impact the accuracy of the simulation.
    • Fine-tune the mesh to capture the flow dynamics and combustion details adequately.

Solver Setup and Simulation

  1. Flow Boundary Conditions:
    • Specify the inlet and outlet boundary conditions for the BFG, as well as any additional boundary conditions for surrounding air and any other relevant gases.
    • Consider the actual operating conditions and gas compositions.
  2. Combustion Model:
    • Select an appropriate combustion model that accounts for the combustion characteristics of blast furnace gas. Common models include the eddy-dissipation model or the laminar flamelet model. Validate the chosen model against experimental data if available.
  3. Heat Transfer Modeling:
    • Implement heat transfer models to simulate the transfer of thermal energy within the burner and its surroundings. This is critical for understanding temperature distributions and potential hotspots.
  4. Species Transport:
    • Model the transport of different species within the combustion process, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. This helps in predicting the combustion efficiency and emission characteristics.
  5. Radiation Modeling:
    • Consider radiation effects, especially in high-temperature combustion environments. Implement radiation models to accurately capture radiative heat transfer within the burner.
  6. Solver Settings:
    • Choose an appropriate numerical solver and set simulation parameters, such as time step, convergence criteria, and turbulence model settings. Adjust these parameters for stability and accuracy.

Post-Processing and Results Analysis

  • Analyze the simulation results using post-processing tools. Visualize key parameters like temperature, velocity, and species concentrations.
  • Evaluate the flame shape, stability, and any potential issues such as flashback or inefficient combustion.

Validation and  Optimization 

  • Use the simulation results to optimize the burner design and operating conditions.
  • This may involve adjusting burner geometry, fuel-air ratios, or other parameters to achieve desired performance metrics.
  • Validate the CFD model against experimental data if available.
  • This helps ensure the accuracy and reliability of the simulation results.


  • The specific design of a blast furnace gas burner can vary depending on the intended application and the requirements of the industrial process.
  • Engineers and designers consider factors such as the quality of blast furnace gas, temperature requirements, and the desired outcomes when developing and implementing these burners.
  • CFD simulations provide valuable insights into the performance of blast furnace gas burners, allowing engineers to optimize designs, enhance combustion efficiency, and minimize emissions.
  • .It’s essential to validate the CFD results against experimental data to ensure that the simulation accurately represents the real-world behavior of the burner.

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